Mark 14:12a, Luke 22:8-13, Preparations for the Passover (9/15/14)
The Chronological Gospel –
Holy Week: Thursday Part 1,
Jesus' Celebration of the Passover
|Mark 14:12a, Luke 22:8-13, Preparations for the Passover|
|Mark 14:17, John 13:1, 3, Luke 22:14b-16, Luke 22:24, John 13:4-16, Luke 22:25-30, John 13:18-20, Jesus washes the disciples' feet.|
|John 13:2, John 13:21b, Mark 14:18c-21, John 13:22, Luke 22:23, John 13:23-26, Matthew 26:25, John 13:27-30, Jesus reveals that he knows of his betrayal.|
|John 13:31-32, Matthew 26:26-29, Jesus institutes the rite of Communion.|
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I mentioned earlier that each of the four gospel writers had his own purpose and point of view in writing, and none of the four purposes was to give us an exact chronology of events. Consequently, a lot of ink has been spilled on an apparent contradiction between Mark (and therefore Matthew and Luke) and John about what day of the week the Last Supper was eaten and the crucifixion took place. Remember that Jewish days go from sundown to sundown, not midnight to midnight.
Mark says clearly in Mark 14:12 that Jesus had his disciples prepare the Passover – the Christian Last Supper – on preparation day, which actually makes a lot of sense and would have put the Last Supper on the first day of Passover, i.e., after sundown, when preparation day was over and the Passover meal should have been eaten. John, in (apparent) contrast, says in John 19:31 that Jesus was taken down from the cross before sundown on preparation day. This also
makes a lot of sense, since it has the Lamb of God slain on preparation day, but it puts the Last Supper one day earlier, before Passover actually started.
Now, allowing for the fact that I don’t know
, and neither do you, here’s a suggestion. John adds that the day after the crucifixion was a special Sabbath. What if one of the preparation days was for the beginning of Passover, and the other preparation day was for the regular weekly Sabbath? No scholar has ever figured this out, so you can think whatever you want to. In this study we’re going with Dr. Daniel’s chronology, which sort of ignores the problem altogether. No matter what you or I decide, it isn’t worth breaking communion over.
12a, 8 On the first day of the feast of Unleavened Bread – the day for killing the Passover lamb, Jesus sent Peter and John with instructions. “Go,” He said, “and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat it.”
Mark 14:17, John 13:1, 3, Luke 22:14b-16, Luke 22:24, John 13:4-16, Luke 22:25-30, John 13:18-20, Jesus washes the disciples' feet. (9/16/14)
9 “Where shall we prepare it?” they asked.
10-12 “You will no sooner have entered the city,” He replied, “then you will meet a man carrying a pitcher of water. Follow him into the house to which he goes, and say to the master of the house, “‘The Rabbi asks you, Where is the room where I can eat the Passover with my disciples?’ “And he will show you a large furnished room upstairs. There make your preparations.”
13 So they went and found all as He had told them; and they got the Passover ready.
We’ve always known that Jesus washed the disciple’s feet as an object lesson. While they were arguing about which one of them was most important, he – their teacher and master – took the part of the lowliest servant. Reading this carefully again, I noticed (probably for the first time ever) that he also washed Judas’ feet before he reminded them that he was their teacher and master. He went on to say explicitly that he knew he would be betrayed by someone at the table, whose feet he had just washed! There was a special component of the object lesson just for Judas.
17 When it was evening, He came with the Twelve.
John 13:2, John 13:21b, Mark 14:18c-21, John 13:22, Luke 22:23, John 13:23-26, Matthew 26:25, John 13:27-30, Jesus reveals that he knows of his betrayal. (9/17/14)
1 Now just before the Feast of the Passover this incident took place. Jesus knew that the time had come for Him to leave this world and go to the Father; and having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end.
3 Jesus, although He knew that the Father had put everything into His hands, and that He had come forth from God and was now going to God,
14b-16 and He had taken His place at table, and the Apostles with Him, He said to them, “Earnestly have I longed to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; for I tell you that I certainly shall not eat one again till its full meaning has been brought out in the Kingdom of God.”
24 There arose also a dispute among them which of them should be regarded as greatest.
4-5 Jesus rose from the table, threw off His upper garments, and took a towel and tied it round Him. Then He poured water into a basin, and proceeded to wash the feet of the disciples and to wipe them with the towel which He had put round Him.
6 When He came to Simon Peter, Peter objected. “Master,” he said, “are *you* going to wash my feet?”
7 “What I am doing,” answered Jesus, “for the present you do not know, but afterwards you shall know.”
8 “Never, while the world lasts,” said Peter, “shall you wash my feet.” “If I do not wash you,” replied Jesus, “you have no share with me.”
9 “Master,” said Peter, “wash not only my feet, but also my hands and my head.”
10-11 “Any one who has lately bathed,” said Jesus, “does not need to wash more than his feet, but is clean all over. And you my disciples are clean, and yet this is not true of all of you.” For He knew who was betraying Him, and that was why He said, “You are not all of you clean.”
12-15 So after He had washed their feet, put on His garments again, and returned to the table, He said to them, “Do you understand what I have done to you? You call me ‘The Rabbi’ and ‘The Master,’ and rightly so, for such I am. If I then, your Master and Rabbi, have washed your feet, it is also your duty to wash one another’s feet.
15-16 For I have set you an example in order that you may do what I have done to you. In most solemn truth I tell you that a servant is not superior to his master, nor is a messenger superior to him who sent him.
25-27 But He said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles are their masters, and those who exercise authority over them are called Benefactors. With you it is not so; but let the greatest among you be as the younger, and the leader be like him who serves. For which is the greater – he who sits at table, or he who waits on him? Is it not he who sits at table? But my position among you is that of one who waits on others.
28-30 You however have remained with me amid my trials; and I covenant to give you, as my Father has covenanted to give me, a Kingdom – so that you shall eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom, and sit on thrones as judges over the twelve tribes of Israel.
18 I am not speaking of all of you. I know whom I have chosen, but things are as they are in order that the Scripture may be fulfilled, which says, ‘HE WHO EATS MY BREAD HAS LIFTED UP HIS HEEL AGAINST ME.’
19-20 From this time forward I tell you things before they happen, in order that when they do happen you may believe that I am He. In most solemn truth I tell you that he who receives whoever I send receives me, and that he who receives me receives Him who sent me.”
Dr. Daniel heads this section, “Jesus makes a final unsuccessful appeal to Judas, by intimating that he is aware of his intentions.” When Jesus said, “one of you will betray me,” every
disciple asked, “It isn’t me, is it?” The form of the question expects Jesus to answer, “No.” Judas used exactly the same words as the other disciples, “It isn’t me, is it?” Jesus answers him, “You said,” or as we would say, “You said it, not me.”* But, in contrast to most translations, what Judas had said
was, “It isn’t me, is it?” So when I saw Dr. Daniels headline for this section, I was struck by his excellent insight: Jesus didn’t say to Judas, “Yes – do it.” He said, “You say it isn’t you. So what’s your plan?”
* Note that Weymouth has, “It is you.” Lots of translations have this, but a strict reading of the Greek can go either way. I think we need to read it in the context of the question, which expects Jesus to say no.
2, 21b, 18 While supper was proceeding, the Devil having by this time suggested to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon, the thought of betraying Him, Jesus was troubled in spirit and said with deep earnestness, “In most solemn truth I tell you that one of you will betray me – one who is eating with me.”
John 13:31-32, Matthew 26:26-29, Jesus institutes the rite of Communion. (9/18/14)
19 They were filled with sorrow, and began asking Him, one by one, “Not I, is it?”
20-21 “It is one of the Twelve,” He replied; “he who is dipping his fingers in the dish with me. For the Son of Man is going His way as it is written about Him; but alas for the man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It had been a happy thing for that man, had he never been born.”
22-23 The disciples began looking at one another, at a loss to know to which of them He was referring. Thereupon they began to discuss with one another which of them it could possibly be who was about to do this.
23-24 There was at table one of His disciples – the one Jesus loved – reclining with his head on Jesus’ bosom. Making a sign therefore to him, Simon Peter said, “Tell us to whom he is referring.”
25 So he, having his head on Jesus’ bosom, leaned back and asked, “Master, who is it?”
26 “It is the one,” answered Jesus, “for whom I shall dip this piece of bread and to whom I shall give it.” Accordingly He dipped the piece of bread, and took it and gave it to Judas, the son of the Iscariot Simon.
25 Then Judas, the disciple who was betraying Him, asked, “Can it be I, Rabbi?” “It is you,” He replied.
27 Then, after Judas had received the piece of bread, Satan entered into him. “Lose no time about it,” said Jesus to him.
28-29 But why He said this no one else at the table understood. Some, however, supposed that because Judas had the money-box Jesus meant, “Buy what we require for the Festival,” or that he should give something to the poor.
30 So Judas took the piece of bread and immediately went out. And it was night.
Passover is the most ancient of the Jewish holidays (Exodus 12 – 13); it celebrates both God’s passing over Jewish families when the firstborn of Egypt died and the speed with which God removed them from Egypt. They left so suddenly that their bread didn’t have time to rise, which is signified by the eating of unleavened bread for the entire week of the holiday. So when Jesus held up the bread and said, “this is my body,” the disciples’ eyes must have popped open! They knew the ritual, and this wasn’t it.
Jesus’ followers usually call this new
ritual the rite of communion, the Eucharist, or the Lord’s supper. We may disagree about unimportant details – juice or wine, weekly or quarterly, transubstantiation or consubstantiation – but we all agree that Jesus established it, and nearly all Christians continue to celebrate it together. God grant that eventually all Christians will be in communion with each other!
31-32 So when Judas was gone out, Jesus said, “Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in Him. Moreover God will glorify Him in Himself, and will glorify Him without delay.
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26 During the meal Jesus took a Passover biscuit, blessed it and broke it. He then gave it to the disciples, saying, “Take this and eat it: it is my body.”
27-28 And He took the cup and gave thanks, and gave it to them saying, “Drink from it, all of you; for this is my blood which is to be poured out for many for the remission of sins – the blood which ratifies the Covenant.
29 I tell you that I will never again take the produce of the vine till that day when I shall drink the new wine with you in my Father’s Kingdom.”
Birth Announcements and Early Lives of Jesus and John the Baptist
Early Ministries of Jesus and John the Baptist
Jesus’ Early Ministry
Jesus’ Galilean Ministry
The Sermon on the Mount
The Sermon on the Plain
John the Baptist
Signs and Parables
Miracles and Mission Trips
Bread of Life
Miracles and Meanings
Transfiguration and TeachingsTo Jerusalem for the Festival of Tabernacles
Some Results of Luke’s Research
More of Luke’s Research
On the Road Again
The Raising of Lazarus
Holy Week: Palm Sunday and Monday
Holy Week: Tuesday, Parables and Questions
Holy Week: Wednesday Part 1, Discussions
Holy Week: Wednesday Part 2, Be Ready!
Holy Week: Thursday Part 1,
Jesus' Celebration of the Passover
Holy Week: Thursday Part 2,
Jesus' Farewell Discourse
Holy Week: Friday Part 1,
Jesus' Arrest and Two Informal Trials
Holy Week: Friday Part 2,
Holy Week: Friday, Part 3, and Saturday, Jesus' Death and Burial
The Empty Tomb
Final Appearances of Jesus Prior to Pentecost
Copyright 2014 by Regina L. Hunter. All rights reserved. "The Last Supper," by Gustave Doré, is from the Gartin family Bible, now in the private collection of Regina Hunter. Scripture readings are from the Weymouth New Testament (1912); caps indicate quotations from the Old Testament. This page has been prepared for the web site by RPB.
Opinions expressed on this page are solely those of the
author, Regina Hunter, and may or may not be shared by the sponsors or the
Bible-study participants. Thanks to the
Holy Spirit for any useful ideas presented here, and thanks to all the readers
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errors are, of course, the sole responsibility of the author.
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